The word Khamira in the Unani system of medicine indicates fermented confection, first introduced by the Hakeem of the Mogul period. Khamira is a semi-solid preparation — a type of Majoon, which is prepared by adding a decoction of herbal drugs or powdered drugs to a base (Qiwam) made up of sugar or sugar with honey.
Other than herbal ingredients, animal and mineral origin drugs are also mixed, either by making solution in aqua or as a micro-fine powder, Scented drugs such as saffron and musk are mixed when the decoction gives a white fermented appearance. Drugs used for the heart are made in such a form so that they are easily absorbed and can produce rapid action.
These Khamiras have been named on the basis of constituents used for the preparation like Khamira Aabresham, Khamira Gaozaban, Khamira Marwareed, Khamira Sandal, and so on. Khamiras usually act as a cardio-tonic, that is, a tonic for vital organs such as the brain, liver, and stomach, and is also used for various other ailments like palpitations, weakness of heart, weakness of principal organs, cough, cold, catarrh, including respiratory and nervous disorders. In view of the increasing number of cardiac problems all over the world, a thorough evaluation of this ancient study on Khamira used in cardiac disorders is of special significance. The present exhaustive review of cardio-active Khamiras, collected from different ancient literatures, will be useful for a large population of the world for the treatment of cardiac problems, without any significant side effects, using natural remedies. This can also be taken as a lead by researchers and medical practitioners for development of new drugs using ancient information. The various active ingredients used in these Khamiras have established cardioprotective activities. Ischemic heart diseases remain the leading cause of death in most developed countries, as seen over the past quarter-century. Reducing the mortality rate and prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) are of utmost importance. Arq gauzaban (a clear aqueous distillate of the plant Onosma bracteatum), a unani product, has been extensively studied as a heart tonic. The Unanipathy authoritative text ‘Bayaz-e-Kabir’ quotes a number of therapeutic indications for arq gauzaban. Several scientists have worked on these plants and have shown in their studies that, individually, these ingredients have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The use of traditional unani medicinal drugs for the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and post MI, are widely accepted